1. It is the application of a specialized tourniquet system to a proximal arm or leg, which is inflated, to a personalized and specific pressure to reduce blood flow to an exercising extremity. The application is brief and intermittent, typically about 6 minutes per exercise, but can last up to 30 minutes based on the specific protocol. With PBFR you can create significant strength and hypertrophy gains with loads as low as 20% 1RM.

    The exact mechanism behind the positive results seen with PBFR is still being extensively researched. Theories range from a significant build up of metabolites by anaerobic metabolism, a systemic anabolic response and cellular swelling. It is most likely a combination of multiple factors. It does appear that muscle protein synthesis plays a primary role as this has been consistently demonstrated in the literature.

  2. Yes, there is a substantial amount of literature that has studied the effects of PBFR. In fact, a recent meta-analysis found a total of 820 articles pertaining to PBFR. The authors of the review concludedImportantly, research suggests that low load resistance exercise (20–30% 1 RM) and low load aerobic exercise (<70 m/min walk training), which would not be expected to cause considerable increases in muscular quantity or quality under normal circumstances, when combined with PBFR produced an exaggerated response for maximizing muscle strength and hypertrophy.” http://www.jsams.org/article/S1440-2440(15)00182-6/abstract?cc=y=

    PBFR consistently demonstrates greater results compared to work matched controls exercising without PBFR. The positive results have been seen in patients after injury, in the elderly, and in athletes. It has also been applied extensively in a military rehabilitation setting on severely compromised patients. http://www.defense.gov/news/newsarticle.aspx?id=123685

    Upon completion of the certification course, the clinician will be very well versed in the PBFR literature, the scientific rational as well as how to apply it clinically. 

  3. PBFR has consistently demonstrated to be a safe modality in the literature. It has been performed on thousands of subjects in the peer-reviewed literature with little to no side effects. 

  4. After injury or surgery a patient is usually unable to lift loads or at an effort level known to induce skeletal muscle adaptation. PBFR allows the clinician to begin the strength and hypertrophy phases of rehabilitation much earlier. PBFR has demonstrated statistically significant improved patient outcomes after anterior cruciate ligament surgery both acutely and chronically. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11128848http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12635796

    Very compromised patients suffering inflammatory muscle wasting diseases such as polymyositis and dermatomyositis have also demonstrated positive results without any potential safety risks. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4232679/

    It has also demonstrated improved results in patients who have suffered severe musculoskeletal trauma  https://www.jsomonline.org/Newsletter/140715.html

    and in women with risk factors for symptomatic knee osteoarthritis http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25289840.

    Clinically our providers have applied it to many diagnoses with very positive results including but not limited to total joint arthroplasties, Achilles repairs, fractures, rotator cuff repairs, muscle strains, nerve injuries, post-operative knee reconstructions and cartilage repairs, and tendinopathies.

  5. Pneumatic tourniquets are classified and regulated “Class I” devices by the FDA. We recommend a clinician use a device that has been device listed with the FDA and indicated for PBFR use specifically. Knee wraps, blood pressure cuffs and other devices suggested for PBFR that do not meet the standards set forth by the FDA for a pneumatic tourniquet leave the clinician susceptible to liability in the event of an adverse response. While we believe PBFR is ultimately a very safe modality, when being applied in clinical settings where persons have comorbidities, risks inherently increase and using a device such as the Delfi PTS System helps to reduce that risk to both patient and clinician.

    Using a 3rd generation tourniquet system that has been device listed with the FDA and specifically indicated for PBFR use that determines each patient’s individual limb occlusion pressure (how much pressure is required to reduce or completely eliminate blood flow), is attached to a system that self calibrates and maintains the designated pressure, allows rapid inflation and deflation of the tourniquet cuff and utilizes wide and contoured cuffs to reduce pressure gradients can all decrease potential injury risks to the patient.


  6. At this time, only those licensed medical healthcare providers that have completed an Owens Recovery Science PBFR certification training may purchase a Delfi PTS for PBFR system. This includes the following providers: Medical Doctors, Physical Therapists, Athletic Trainers, Chiropractors and Occupational Therapists. 

  7. Yes! In fact we love for students to take our course and we offer a nice discount on course cost to those enrolled in a healthcare program such as physical therapy school or an athletic training program. If you take the certification course as a student, you will be able to purchase the Delfi device once you obtain your license. If you have an active license in PT/PTA, OT/OTA, ATC, Chiropractor, or MD you do not qualify for the student discount. Send inquiries to http://www.owensrecoveryscience.com/contact/

  8. The unit is very light and portable. The exact dimensions of the tourniquet pump are:

    Height: 180 mm (7.0 inches)

    Width: 120 mm (4.7 inches)

    Depth: 110 mm (4.3 inches)

    Weight: 1.08 kg (38.0 oz)

    In the clinical setting using a rolling stand makes it very easy to move the system. See our product page for examples.

  9. At this time, there is no specific billing code for PBFR. However, you perform exercise while performing PBFR which allows the clinician to bill therapeutic exercise (97110) while doing PBFR. In todays outcome driven healthcare system the ability to potentially improve exercise results with the addition of PBFR can be very beneficial to the clinician.

  10. The American Physical Therapy Association recently performed a 10 state review spread geographically across the United States to determine if PBFR falls within those states practice acts. The APTA determined that PBFR does fall within each of those states practice acts for Physical Therapists.

    See review here: https://www.apta.org/PatientCare/BloodFlowRestrictionTraining/

    Similarly the Board of Certification for Athletic Trainers in its Spring 2018 AP Update provided some guidance for ATC’s and whether or not their license allows them to perform PBFR.

    See article here: http://www.boc-digital.org/bocatc/summer_2018/MobilePagedArticle.action?articleId=1404065#articleId1404065

  11. Yes. We are able to process your order at anytime. The unit will be shipped to your physical address after your course completion.